« Vol.2, No.3, Okt 2003
Kekuasaan dan Pengaruh Pemimpin Suatu Pendekatan Psikologi SosialKomaruddin Sastradipoera
AbstrakKata kunci : Kekuasaan, Pengaruh Pemimpin, Pendekatan Psikologi Sosial
Leadership is interpersonal influence, exercised in situation and directed, through the communication process, toward the accomplishment of specified goal. Leadership involves endeavors or attempts on the part of a leader (i.e., influencer) to affect (i.e., influence) the attitude and behaviour of a follower (i.e., influencee) in situation (i.e., surroundings). Although some theorists who are engaged in organizational decisionmaking equate power with influence, social psychologists more typically make distinctions between the two. The difference between power and influence can best be understood in terms of Lewin’s field theory of social behaviour.
Social power is the ability of a person or group to affect the behaviour of another person or group. In contrast to power, social influence can be defined as attitudinal or behavioural change brought about by application of social power. In spite of the fact that such change is often correlated with the power of the influencing leader, the relationship between power and influence is nonsymmetrical: power is a prerequisite for the occurrence of influence, but a lack of influence does not necessarily imply a lack of power. Social influence maybe a positive phenomenon or a negative one, depending on the circumstances of influence and on the value system of the person making the judgement.
The examination and intepretation of the nature and significance of power in terms of forces brought to bear upon the target person can be extended to include the target person’s tendency to resist or avoid the intended influence. We now consider four different counterforces available to the target person: inertia, resistance, avoidance, and opposition. All four of these counterforces will have the effect of reducing the level of influence, and the last two may also limit the amount of power that the influencing leader is willing to exercise.
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