« Volume 2, Nomor 2 , Oktober 2013
Perkembangan Kebudayaan Islam Di Spanyol Pada Masa Kekuasaan Bani Umayah Ii Dalam Bidang Arsitektur (756-1031 M)
Desi Puji Lestari. S
AbstrakKata kunci : Islam; Architecture; Culture; Spain; Bani Umayah II
This paper was titled “The Development of Islamic Culture in Spain in the Age of Bani Ummayah II in the architecture field (756-1031)”. The main problem of this research was “How the process of development of the Islamic Culture in Spain in the field of Architecture with its remnants in the age of Bani Umayyah II (756-1031 )”. The problem had divided into four questions; 1) How the background event of the development of Islamic culture is Spain, especially from the result of architecture in the Age of Bani Ummayah II (756-1031)? 2) How is the result of Islamic Architecture in the Age of Bani Ummayah II? 3) How the effect of the development of Islamic architecture in the people of Spain in the cultural aspect? 4) How the condition of the remnant of the Ummayah II architecture in Spain after it had vanished in 1031? The Method of research is History Method, and the research technique was the study of literature, The History method insisted four major points such as: heuristic, critic of data, interpretation, and historiography. For analyzing the researcher using interdisciplinary approachment by using sociology, anthropology, Islamic politic, and architecture that relevant with the subject of study. Based on the result of this research showed that Islam came to Spain in the condition when the Spain in the degradation under the regime of the Barbarian power the Visigoth. After the invasion of Muslim is Spain (711) it had became the tunnel for the inserting of Islamic culture into the European culture by the Spain, such as religion, culture, social, architecture, politic, etc. In the age of Bani Umayyah II (756-1031) it was the age of stability in political aspect, Muslim hold the major power in political aspect. The first Caliphate Abdurrahman I (756-788) he made the grant Mosque of Cordova (786 M). And his successor Abdurrahman III (912-961) built the city of palace, the palace of Medina Az-Zahra (936). The acculturation between Muslim and Spain (Moor) had characterized the new dimension of culture with its personal style of building by using the geometric shapes. The sense of Architecture were faced not only from the building of palace and masque but also in the gardens building projects.
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